In the beginning, as it often is told, we are created male or female. Thereafter, we begin noticing that there are distinct differences in the ways in which boys and girls approach the world throughout the development of their senses. It is important to understand that we all start as female, and it is only through the release of certain hormones through the endocrine system during the first trimester of gestation that the cellular composition continues its path toward the development of the person becoming a male or a female.
After birth, infants experience sensory development by receiving incoming signals and locomotor development—moving through and touching the world around them—prior to experiencing cognitive development. In other words, neonates react to the world based on their senses and ability to move through the environment. They do this before they learn to think about the consequences of their behaviors through the development of cognitions, schemata or thoughts.
The five senses that are innate in almost all species are taste, sight, touch, smell and sound. These senses lie in different lobes of the brain, and the area within each lobe contains a cortex for incoming information. Different lobes house different processing centers for incoming sensory experiences. Sensory information is any type of stimulus sent to a person as incoming signals translated into sensation information. This process is likened to the manner in which one receives different ringtones on a cell phone to differentiate between various callers. For example, a light ray, or a sound wave, is a stimulus that hits either the retina of the eye or the opening into the ear canal, and the impulse is “translated” through sensory processing. Not only do the five senses paint a picture of the world around an infant, they also are important in the formation of visual-spatial relationships, motor movement, balance, emotions and the baby’s psychological movement through their environment.