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The Iron Age

By Ada S. Polla

Discover how to reduce the effect of iron on aging skin.


Recurrent Melanoma More Prevalent Than First Thought

Recurrent melanoma is more common than previously thought, with nearly 15 percent of people diagnosed with the potentially fatal skin cancer at risk of a second diagnosis within two years, a new study found.

About 6 percent of patients will develop a second melanoma within one year of the initial diagnosis, while 8 percent will be diagnosed with a second malignancy within two years, according to the researchers from Dartmouth Medical School in Hanover, N.H.

This rate is more frequent than previously thought and points to the importance of surveillance and skin screenings, according to the study in the April issue of Archives of Dermatology.

"This is not surprising, but it gives us another stimulus to be very vigilant about picking up second and third melanomas," said Dr. Vijay Trisal, assistant professor of surgical oncology at City of Hope Cancer Center, in Duarte, Calif. "Once it goes to the lymph nodes, we basically have no treatment." Trisal was not involved with the study.

Dr. Keyvan Nouri, director of Mohs and dermatologic surgery and associate professor of dermatology at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, added, "I don't think it [the new study] is going to affect the way doctors practice, but it's more data that says there's a real risk of recurrent melanomas."

Melanoma is a particularly virulent form of skin cancer. It begins in cells known as melanocytes, the pigment-producing cells that give skin its color, but can spread quickly and unpredictably to other organs of the body.

An estimated 62,000 Americans are diagnosed with melanoma each year, according to the American Cancer Society, and nearly 8,000 people die from the disease annually.

According to the new study, previous studies have put melanoma recurrence at less than 4 percent within one year.

The current study included 354 New Hampshire residents who'd had a previous diagnosis of melanoma. All participants answered questions about their medical history, sun exposure history, hair and eye color, and whether their skin tanned, burned or freckled in the sun. Then they underwent a skin examination by a physician.

Six percent of the participants developed an additional melanoma within one year of the first diagnosis, while 8 percent developed an additional melanoma within two years.

Roughly two-thirds of those who developed additional malignancies and 37 percent of those who did not had at least one atypical mole, which is a risk factor for additional melanomas. Someone with three or more atypical moles had four times the risk of developing an additional tumor. Atypical moles have at least three of the following features -- a diameter larger than 5 millimeters; redness; an irregular or ill-defined border; a variety of colors or a portion that is flat, the researchers said.

In one-third of the patients who developed another melanoma within two years, the subsequent melanoma was deeper than the first.

The study found little relationship between risk and benign moles, eye and hair color, or length of sun exposure. There was, however, a surprising inverse relationship between blistering sunburn and melanoma -- those with a history of sunburn were less likely to develop a second melanoma than those without, the researchers wrote. But this finding "must be viewed cautiously," the researchers said. It's possible that people who are predisposed to multiple melanomas may be less vulnerable to sunburn than those who get only one melanoma, or there may be a separate reason for the finding, the researchers said.

Another study in the same issue of the journal reported that nearly half of high schools surveyed in the Denver area contained advertisements for tanning parlors in their newspapers.

The ultraviolet (UV) radiation used in tanning parlors is a known carcinogen. The authors of the study, led by Dr. Scott Freeman, of the University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center, called for cancer-prevention policies that prohibited UV tanning advertising to minors.

The increasing incidence of melanoma in the United States also prompted the journal to publish an editorial calling for a national, five-year plan for "enhancing prevention and early detection for melanoma." The plan, the editorial stated, should start with a randomized trial of melanoma screening in white men aged 50 and over, who have the highest rates of the disease. The editorial also discussed the possibility of providing better insurance coverage -- including Medicare and Medicaid -- for such screening.

For individuals who have been diagnosed with melanoma, Trisal suggested surveillance every six months from a dermatologist. People who have been diagnosed with a second melanoma should consider getting checked every four months.

Nouri said, "Depending on the thickness of the melanoma, they should be seen every two to six months for the first two to three years to make sure there is no recurrence."

By Amanda Gardner, HealthDay News, April 17, 2006


The Discomfort of Rosacea

A recent survey conducted by the National Rosacea Society and published in Rosacea Review indicates that 93% of participants experienced at least some physical discomfort due to rosacea. The most common symptoms were facial burning, facial itching, stinging, swelling and tenderness.


Sunscreen Makers Sued for False Claims

A class action lawsuit launched in Los Angeles against the five leading U.S. makers of sun protection lotions alleges that the companies lied about the effectiveness of their products in blocking harmful sun rays and protecting skin.

The lawsuit names the following brands: Coppertone (Schering-Plough); Banana Boat (Sun Pharmaceuticals and Playtex Products); Hawaiian Tropic (Tanning Research Laboratories); Neutrogena (Neutrogena Corp. and Johnson & Johnson); and Bullfrog (Chattem Inc.).

Combined, they account for 70 percent of U.S. sales of such products, Agence France Presse reported.

Mitchell Twersky, one of the lawyers involved in the legal action, said claims by these brands are "clearly misleading" insofar as they claim that "their products block all the harmful sun rays."

The lawsuit seeks to have words such as "sunblock" and "waterproof" taken off the labels of these products. It also wants the companies that make them to direct "the money that they wrongfully obtained" into a skin cancer research foundation, AFP reported.

HealthDay News, March 31, 2006


The Esthetic Benefits of Oxygen Skin Care

By: Craig Wenborg, MD

Learn about this new trend in skin care treatments.


Scientists Spot Psoriasis Gene

A variant of a single immune system gene boosts the risk for psoriasis, researchers report.

A team from the University of Michigan looked for the gene -- called PSORS1 -- in more than 2,700 people from 678 families in which at least one family member had psoriasis.

According to the researchers, PSORS1 is the first genetic determinant of psoriasis to be definitively identified in a large clinical trial. The finding may help in the development of new, more effective treatments for the disfiguring inflammatory skin disease.

To develop psoriasis, people must inherit several disease-related genes and also be exposed to one or more environmental triggers, such as a strep infection, the researchers noted.

"For every individual with psoriasis who carries the PSORS1 gene, there are 10 other people with the gene who don't get psoriasis," study director Dr. James T. Elder, a professor of dermatology and of radiation oncology, said in a prepared statement.

The PSORS1 gene is actually one of more than 20 different varieties of a gene called HLA-C, one of several genes that regulate how the immune system fights off infection.

While Elder and his colleagues have identified the PSORS1 gene -- which they believe is the major gene involved in psoriasis susceptibility -- they said that much more research is needed to identify other genes involved in the development of psoriasis.

The findings appear in the May issue of the American Journal of Human Genetics.

HealthDay News, March 22, 2006


Scientists Identify Gene Linked to Eczema

A gene linked to eczema has been identified by an international team of scientists and the finding may help in the development of new treatments for the common skin condition.

The gene produces a protein called filaggrain, which helps the skin form a protective outer barrier. Reduction or absence of the protein, normally abundant in the outermost layers of skin, results in dry and flaky skin. This study found that about 10% of Europeans carry a mutation that switches off this gene.

"It was a really tough project, but because we had experience in this type of gene, we managed to crack it where others had failed," Professor Irwin McLean of the University of Dundee in Scotland, told BBC News. "We see this as the dawn of a new era in the understanding and treatment of eczema and the type of asthma that goes with eczema as well."

The findings appear in the journal Nature Genetics.

HealthDay News, March 21, 2006


The New Skin of Color

By Christine Heathman

The future of skin care is a rainbow of colors that offers new insights and challenges for skin care professionals.