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Like most over-the-counter products, not all sunscreens are created equal. Some sunscreens provide higher sun protection, while others contain ingredients that are better suited for children’s skin. The key is choosing a sunscreen that will provide the best sun protection for all family members, and combining sunscreen use with other sun-smart behaviors. “The best type of sunscreen is the one you will use again and again,” said dermatologist Henry W. Lim, MD, Livingood Chair and chairman of the department of dermatology at Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit, Mich. “Just be sure to choose one that offers broad-spectrum protection, has an SPF of 30 or greater, and is water resistant.”
To help consumers make informed decisions when purchasing sunscreen, dermatologists answer some of the most common sunscreen questions and address some consumers’ safety concerns about sunscreen.
Dermatologists recommend using a sunscreen with a SPF of at least 30, which blocks 97% of the sun’s rays. SPFs higher than 30 block slightly more of the sun’s rays, but Lim cautions that no sunscreen can block 100% of the sun’s rays. It is important to note that even if you are wearing a high-SPF sunscreen, it should be reapplied approximately every two hours when outdoors and after swimming or sweating.
Ideally, babies under 6 months should not spend time directly in the sun. Since babies’ skin is much more sensitive than adults, sunscreens should be avoided if possible. Instead, Lim says the best sun protection for babies is to keep them in the shade as much as possible and dress them in long sleeves, pants, a wide-brimmed hat and sunglasses.
Sunscreen can be applied to exposed skin not covered by clothing on toddlers and infants 6 months or older. Lim noted that sunscreens containing zinc oxide or titanium dioxide are most appropriate for the thinner skin of toddlers and infants 6 months or older since they do not penetrate the skin and are less likely to cause irritation.
Scientific evidence supports the benefits of using sunscreen to minimize short- and long-term damage to the skin from sun exposure. Dermatologists agree that preventing skin cancer and sunburn far outweigh any unproven concerns for toxicity or human health hazard from sunscreen ingredients. However, sunscreen alone cannot fully protect people from the sun. Instead, the American Academy of Dermatology (Academy) recommends that in addition to applying sunscreen, everyone should seek shade, wear protective clothing and sunglasses, and stay out of tanning beds – all important behaviors to reduce the risk of skin cancer.
Lim says the kind of sunscreen you choose is a matter of personal choice, and may vary depending on the area of the body to be protected. Available sunscreen options include lotions, creams, gels, ointments, wax sticks and sprays.