Melasma is a benign skin disorder characterized by irregular patches of pigmentation on sun-exposed areas of the face. The condition is most common in adult females, who comprise approximately 90% of known cases. Although there are many clinical manifestations of melasma, it is generally considered to be a chronic condition with progression of disease if left untreated. Melasma occurs as a result of upregulated melanocytes that produce irregular patches of hyperpigmentation on the skin.
Melasma is a chronic condition that primarily affects healthy women of childbearing age. It is believed that a combination of sun exposure, hormones and genetic susceptibility lead to the development of the characteristic blotchy skin associated with melasma. Traditionally, its treatment has been based on four distinctly different, but interrelated modalities:
- Avoidance of UV exposure;
- Topical regulation of melanocytic activity;
- Selective light-based and laser-based photothermolysis of melanocytes or melanin; and
- Chemical or mechanical exfoliation.
1. Avoidance of UV exposure. Minimizing UV exposure begins with the use of sunscreens, and the avoidance of direct and indirect sunlight. Clients should be advised to restrict direct sun exposure during peak hours and apply a physical sunscreen with at least an SPF of 30. By avoiding direct UV exposure, clients avoid unnecessary upregulation of melanocytic activity.